What is heatstroke?
In simple terms, heatstroke occurs when a dog loses its natural ability to
regulate its body temperature. Dogs don't sweat all over their bodies the
way humans do. Canine body temperature is primarily regulated through
respiration (i.e., panting). If a dog's respiratory tract cannot evacuate
heat quickly enough, heatstroke can occur.
To know whether or not your dog is suffering from heatstroke (as
opposed to merely heat exposure), it's important to know the signs of
A dog's normal resting temperature is about 100.5 to 102.5 degrees
Fahrenheit. Once a dog's temperature rises above 105 degrees,
changes start to take place, and the dog begins to experience the effects
heatstroke. At 106 to 108 degrees, the dog begins to suffer irreversible
damage to the kidneys, liver, gastrointestinal tract, heart and brain.
If a dog is experiencing heatstroke, you may observe excessive panting;
hyperventilation; increased salivation; dry gums that become pale, grayish
and tacky; rapid or erratic pulse; weakness; confusion; inattention;
vomiting; diarrhea; and possible rectal bleeding. If the dog continues to
overheat, breathing efforts become slowed or absent, and finally, seizures
or coma can occur.
The amount of damage a dog sustains when stricken with heatstroke
depends on the magnitude and duration of the exposure. The longer and
more severe the exposure, the worse the damage will be.
What to do
1. Pay attention to your dog. Recognizing the symptoms of heatstroke and
responding quickly is essential for the best possible outcome.
2. Get into the shade. If you think your dog is suffering from heatstroke,
move it into a shaded area and out of direct sunlight. Apply cool water to
the inner thighs and stomach of the dog, where there's a higher
concentration of relatively superficial, large blood vessels. Apply cool
water to the foot pads, as well.
3. Use running water. A faucet or hose is the best way to wet down your
dog's body. Never submerge your dog in water, such as in a pool or tub -
this could cool the dog too rapidly, leading to further complications,
including cardiac arrest and bloating.
4. Use cool - not cold - water. Many people make the mistake of using cold
water or ice to cool the dog. When faced with a dog suffering from
heatstroke, remember that the goal is to cool the dog. Using ice or
extremely cold water is actually counterproductive to this process because
ice and cold water cause the blood vessels to constrict, which slows blood
flow, thus slowing the cooling process.
5. Don't cover the dog. One of the keys to successfully cooling your dog
is ensuring the water being placed on the dog can evaporate. Never cover
overheated dog with a wet towel or blanket. This inhibits evaporation and
creates a sauna effect around your dog's body. Likewise, don't wet the dog
down and put it into an enclosed area, such as a kennel. Any air flow
the cooling process is helpful in reducing the dog's body temperature.
Sitting with the wet dog in a running car with the air conditioner blowing
is an ideal cooling situation.
6. Keep the dog moving. It's important to try to encourage your dog to
stand or walk slowly as it cools down. This is because the circulating
tends to pool in certain areas if the dog is lying down, thus preventing
cooled blood from circulating back to the core.
7. Allow the dog to drink small amounts of water. Cooling the dog is the
first priority. Hydration is the next. Don't allow the dog to gulp water.
Instead, offer small amounts of water that's cool, but not cold. If the
drinks too much water too rapidly, it could lead to vomiting or bloat.
8. Avoid giving human performance drinks. Performance beverages designed
for humans are not recommended because they are not formulated with the
canine's physiology in mind. If you can't get an overheated dog to drink
water, try offering chicken- or beef-based broths.
See a veterinarian
Once your dog's temperature begins to drop, cease the cooling efforts and
bring the dog to a veterinarian as soon as possible. Your dog's
should be allowed to slowly return to normal once cooling has begun. A dog
that's cooled too quickly may become hypothermic.
Even if your dog appears to be fully recovered, the veterinarian needs to
check to determine if the heatstroke caused any damage to your dog's
kidneys and liver. The effects of heatstroke can continue for 48 to
72 hours longer, even if your dog appears normal.
William Grant, DVM, a veterinarian for 20 years and former president of
Southern California Veterinary Medical Association, has treated hundreds
cases of heatstroke, ranging from mild to fatal.
According to Grant, the most common cause of death following heatstroke is
disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (blood coagulating throughout the
body), or DIC, which can occur hours or days after the heatstroke episode.
DIC can also be caused by pyometra or septicemia, but Grant says
heatstroke is the most common cause. "Once a dog develops DIC, it may
bleed in the thorax, abdomen, nose and intestine," Grant says.
the blood-clotting factors are consumed, there is an inability of the
blood vessels to prevent leaking; the condition is almost always
fatal." For this reason, follow-up veterinary care is essential
following a heatstroke episode, even if your dog seems to be completely
Prevention is the best medicine
The best treatment for heatstroke is prevention. Especially during the
summer months, it's essential to be aware of the potential for heatstroke.
Knowing the signs of heatstroke, and taking the necessary steps to prevent
it, will ensure your dog can have a safe and active life year-round.